Monday, May 25, 2020

Theories, Humans, And Social Evolution Essay - 1764 Words

â€Å"I have not given, received, or used any unauthorized assistance† - Victoria Stake ANTH 400 – Exam #1 Theories, Humans, and Social Evolution Theory, for me at this point in the semester, means that a hypothesis has been tested, the results have been replicated, and then the theory withstands time but it is falsifiable in nature. There are three different kinds of theories, with the first being the most basic and containing the widest range. This is the High-level theory that helps us to understand the broad range of phenomena and we can see high-level theories almost right-away. Then, there is the Middle-level theories. These theories give explanations for reoccurring events and give an evaluation of the High-level theories (Urban and Schortman 2012: 21). Following the Middle-level theory, is the Low-level theory. This is the most specialized level, which comprises the data for both High-level and Middle-level theories (Urban and Schortman 2012: 21). The Low-level theories are basically the how, why, and what to form a whole picture from the High-level and Middle-level theories. To put the theories in the terms of photogr aphy, High-level theories are a quick snap-shot with a camera phone, Middle-level theories are a digital camera that you take the time to line up a photo, and Low-level theories are the IMAX quality cameras that are used. According to the Archaeological Theory in Practice book by Patricia Urban and Edward Schortman, theory is rarely tested directly andShow MoreRelatedHuman Primates And Human Primate1661 Words   |  7 Pagesthe behavior of non-human primate and human primate in the literature and movies we went over, compared to the evolutionary understandings of primate behavior. Throughout this class we studied and compared the different primates, including human and non-humans. According to the Wikipedia, â€Å"The primate lineage is thought to go back at least 65 million years ago.† with that one could say that research on non-human and human primate can somehow explain the theory behind evolution. In addition to theRead MoreEssay on Evolution: The Destruction of Humanity?1723 Words   |  7 PagesThroughout human history mankind has seen itself as the most important creation in the universe. The only thing seen as greater than humanity was the gods. This is a common theme that is found i n the histories of civilizations, cultures, and religions around the world. Any idea that said humans were different than this or that went against this notion was not only going against these respected institutions it was going against humanity itself. The theory of Evolution was one of the most revolutionaryRead MoreCharles Darwin s Theory Of Evolution918 Words   |  4 PagesCharles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is the most successful theory of it’s kind. Darwin’s idea of Natural Selection has found success not just in the organic world, but also in human society. This is no coincidence. After Darwin’s Beagle voyage, he returned to England during the Industrial Revolution. As a man of wealth, Darwin acted as a first-hand witness to the societal changes occurring around him. The Industrial Revolution, along with the corresponding economic theories played a large role inRead MoreThe Theory Of Natural Selection963 Words   |  4 Pages Life is evolution. Humans continuously try to keep up with the latest trends in an attempt to remain relevant in society. In the past ten years, humans have evolved immensely with the introduction, development, and integration of technology into their culture. Virtually everything can be found on the internet. Pictures and documents are being shared through cloud storage rather than being shared directly with a physical document, and doing homework online is now the norm. People have adapted toRead MoreDarwin’s Theory of Natural Selection and Social Darwinism Essay811 Words   |  4 Pages Darwin and Evolution are inextricably linked in the minds of most people who have had the opportunity to study them in basic biology. However, Darwins theories of selection and survival of the fittest have been applied to moral, economic, political, and other cultural aspects of society. Dennett briefly touched on some of the political and social ramifications of Darwins theories in the final chapter of Darwins Dangerous Idea. Other philosophers and thinkers have also adapted Darwins evolutionaryRead MoreDarwin s Theory Of Evolution1339 Words   |  6 PagesCountless scientists spent their lives working on a succinct theory of evolution, but none found as great of popularity and success as Charles Darwin. Using his concept of Natural Selection, Darwin managed to explain evolution in not just the organic world, but also in humans. The fact that Darwin’s theory transfers so easily to human society is no coincidence. After Darwin’s Beagle voyage, he returned to England du ring the Industrial Revolution. As a man of wealth, Darwin acted as a first-hand witnessRead MoreEvolution Of Language And The Brain1447 Words   |  6 Pagesinclude bio-cultural evolution, brain development, and biosemiotics. He has published 2 major books The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain† and â€Å"Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter† also coauthored several books and articles revolving semiotics. The book I will be mainly focusing on is The Symbolic Species, which tackles on his theory of the co-evolution of language and the brain. He has 3 tasks in this book first, differentiates human mode of reference (symbolicRead MoreA Good Explanation Of The Evolution Of Human Behavior1055 Words   |  5 Pagesexplanation of the evolution of human behavior? Human beings, like all other organisms, are a product of biological development and environmental interactions. Behavior itself is a phenotypic trait, and as such, reflects a history of specific interactions between genes, experience, and environment. Of the thirty-eight proposals used to explain the evolution of human behavior, sociobiology is the most plausible explanation. Sociobiologists, including Edward O. Wilson, believe that human behavior, as wellRead MoreDarwin and History1162 Words   |  5 PagesFollowing 1859, The Origin of Species had at last entered public consciousness. While the theories presented by Darwin were simultaneously being celebrated, condemned or challenged, it triggered a new form of self-awareness. Because Darwin initially avoided addressing the ultimate question of human evolution until The Descent of Man published in 1871, it would lead others to pursue the matter with diverse explanations. Known as the father of German Darwinism, Ernst Haeckelâ€℠¢s Natà ¼rliche Schà ¶pfungsgeschichteRead MoreAnthropology In The Early-Twentieth-Century Contained Theories872 Words   |  4 PagesAnthropology in the early-twentieth-century contained theories that departed from those of the unilineal evolution in the nineteenth century. The unilineal evolutionary theory argued that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process; therefore, progressing from being a primitive society to the most advanced, or civilized, in a uniform manner. The theory that species were thought to evolve into increasing complexity was applied to societies’ development to progress from a simple to complex

Friday, May 15, 2020

Johns Hopkins University Acceptance Rate, SAT/ACT Scores, GPA

Johns Hopkins University is a highly selective school with an acceptance rate of 9.9%. To apply, students can use the Common Application, Universal Application, or Coalition Application. JHU has an Early Decision program that can improve admission chances for students who are sure the university is their top choice school. Johns Hopkins has multiple campuses in the Baltimore area, but the majority of undergraduate programs are housed in the red-brick Homewood Campus in the northern part of the city. Johns Hopkins is best-known for its professional programs in health sciences, international relations, and engineering. However, prospective students shouldnt underestimate the quality of the liberal arts and sciences. With a multi-billion dollar endowment and 10-to-1  student/faculty ratio, the university is a teaching and research powerhouse. On the athletic front, the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays compete in the NCAA Division III  Centennial Conference. The university fields 12 mens and 10 womens varsity sports. The universitys many strengths  have earned Hopkins a chapter of  Phi Beta Kappa  and membership in the  American Association of Universities. JHU is ranked among the top Maryland colleges, top Middle Atlantic colleges, and top national universities. Considering applying to Johns Hopkins? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Johns Hopkins University had an acceptance rate of 9.9%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 9 students were admitted, making Johns Hopkins admissions process highly competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 29,129 Percent Admitted 9.9% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 46% SAT Scores and Requirements Johns Hopkins University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2016-17 admissions cycle, 43% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 720 770 Math 730 800 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of JHUs admitted students fall within the top 7% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Johns Hopkins scored between 720 and 770, while 25% scored below 720 and 25% scored above 770. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 730 and 800, while 25% scored below 730 and 25% scored a perfect 800. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1570 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Johns Hopkins. Requirements Johns Hopkins University does not require the SAT writing section. Note that JHU participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. At JHU, SAT Subject tests are optional. ACT Scores and Requirements Johns Hopkins University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2016-17 admissions cycle, 56% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 33 35 Math 31 35 Composite 33 35 This admissions data tells us that most of JHUs admitted students fall within the top 2% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Johns Hopkins received a composite ACT score between 33 and 35, while 25% scored above 35 and 25% scored below 33. Requirements Johns Hopkins does not require the ACT writing section. Unlike many universities, JHU superscores ACT results; your highest subscores from multiple ACT sittings will be considered. GPA In 2018, the mean, unweighted high school GPA of Johns Hopkins incoming freshman class was 3.93%. This information suggests that most successful applicants to Johns Hopkins University have primarily A grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Johns Hopkins Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex.   The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Johns Hopkins University. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Johns Hopkins University, which ranks among the 20 most  selective universities in the country, has a highly competitive admissions pool with a low acceptance rate and high average SAT/ACT scores. However, JHU has a holistic admissions process involving other factors beyond your grades and test scores. A strong application  essay and glowing letters of recommendation can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningful extracurricular activities and a rigorous course schedule. Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their test scores are outside JHUs average range. If youre applying to Johns Hopkins, you should  consider the school a reach  even if you have exceptional grades and standardized test scores. The graph above illustrates why. Many students with unweighted A averages and extremely high standardized test scores were still rejected by Johns Hopkins University. All admissions data has been sourced from the  National Center for Education Statistics  and  Johns Hopkins University Undergraduate Admissions Office.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Hollywoods Biggest Stars - 2278 Words

Hollywoods Biggest Stars Where do Hollywood’s biggest stars come from? Why do we consider them to be the top of the many actors and actresses that show up in movies every month? Is their success and popularity the public’s doing, or does it stem from somewhere else, somewhere like Hollywood itself? I‘d say the latter is as probable as the former. Let us take Julia Roberts for example. Certainly not the most beautiful of all of Hollywood’s actresses, what makes Julia Roberts so special in the minds of Americans? Is it her humongous mouth, her toothy grin, or those â€Å"Pretty Woman† legs of hers, which by the way were not her own in the movie? No. It is a certain image that Hollywood and its circle of cooperating tabloids and media†¦show more content†¦This is exactly what Hollywood wants people to do. By creating a semblance of great gossip and hype about an actor, and exploiting the curious nature of humans, the film industry jump-starts a real social craze and a heightened regard for one of its money-producing minions who could very well have been just another face in the crowd the previous month. It is not the public that â€Å"discovers† great performers, but rather the industry that packages its plain gray stones into shimmering nuggets of â€Å"gold†. In other words, those who fall under Hollywood’s advertisement spell are analogous to the emperor who fell prey to the trick played on him by the fake, thieving tailors: â€Å"A beautiful and majestic set of robes we are weaving and creating for you, your majesty. Only a fool would not be able to see the breathtaking colors of the special fabric we are producing on this loom for your brilliant costume! By the way, please bring us more gold and silver so that we may purchase additional dyes and threads to continue making the cloth.† Like the emperor, we supply the funds for making bigger â€Å"stars†, and when a new star is introduced, not enough people want to go against the seemingly popular opinion to overturn the pre-created Hollywood faà §ade. Eventually, as time wears on, and as more and more people buy into the image that has been created for the new face inShow MoreRelatedAmerica’s Domination of the Film Industry693 Words   |  3 Pagestechnologi cal advances that took place in film over time and the events which occurred during these periods, it was a complex journey. In the following essay we are going to discuss why I believe that the wars faced both foreign and domestic played the biggest factor in the American Film industry’s rise to dominance by the 1950s. Birth of Film: As with all things it’s probably best to start with the beginning; the birth of film. Eadweard Muybridge was hired in 1872 to capture images of a horse running toRead MoreStar Wars : The Phantom Menace933 Words   |  4 PagesDuring the summer of 1999, Star Wars: The Phantom Menace stormed theaters with a wave of anticipation that was unprecedented. By that point, Star Wars was assumed to be a thing of the past – until George Lucas decided to revisit his beloved creation. It sent fans into a frenzy of immeasurable proportions, lighting a fire in the adolescent hearts of millions and millions†¦and millions. But, then something strange happened. The Phantom Menace wasn’t the Star Wars we all knew and loved. It was riddledRead MoreStar Wars Pop Culture Icon1043 Words   |  5 Pagesof marketing out come from? Simple. Star Wars. Thanks to the cultural influence of George Lucas’ Star Wars there is not a director in Hollywood that doesn’t look to cash in through other forms of movie sales. In late 1975 George Lucas began directing something that would soon become one of America’s biggest works of the 20th century. Firstly, it is apparent that Star Wars has gained a place in Western culture verbiage. This is evident of the fact that Star Wars is easily referenced. Much likeRead MoreFrancis Ford Coppola, The Visionary Director Of The Godfather Essay1067 Words   |  5 Pagesthe biggest film studio in the world in terms of market share. Disney’s latest 5 films are Star Wars VII, The Jungle Book, Finding Dory, Tarzan and Beauty and the Beast. That is 3 remakes and two sequels. But why is this? Drive directed by Nicolas Refn, is an incredibly highly rated film that received 92% on rotten tomatoes and 100% on rolling stone made 30 million dollars profit. Drive was praised for its unique atmosphere, original directing style and the clever way it showed its story. Star WarsRead More A Comparison of Kate Chopins The Awakening and Grand Isle Essay1492 Words   |  6 PagesTelevision (TNT) made the movie in 1991, and it stars Kelly McGillis as Edna Pontellier and Adrian Pasdar as Robert Lebrun . To say that this movie is based, even loosely, on The Awakening is an insult to Kate Chopins colorful literary work. A reviewer from People Weekly calls it a tedious melodrama and sees it as Kelly McGilliss vanity project because she is star, producer, and narrator (Grand Isle 13). Grand Isle is an example of how Hollywoods ratings scramble can tear apart a striking pieceRead MoreBollywood Is The Biggest Film Industry In India, But Is1123 Words   |  5 PagesBollywood is the biggest film industry in India, but is not the only film industry in India. Bollywood was born at the same time as Indian cinema itself. By the 1930s, Bollywood had already built several studios which, 10 years later, had produced approximately two-thirds of Bollywood’s 150–200 annual films. The name Bollywood comes from the American from Hollywood, the B is there for Bombay (now know as Mumbai). A typical Bollywood movie lasts for two-and-a-half hours, it has slowly unrolling storylinesRead M oreEssay about Cultural Report: Hollywood 1900-19402097 Words   |  9 Pagesactress Virginia Rappe during a party hosted by Arbuckle caused an ever growing ripple in the calm sea that was the Hollywood performer. This intrusion into the private lives of movie actors and actresses is arguably the beginning of the Hollywood star system. The popularity of certain performers began to be exploited in order to further the reach of the industry in terms of marketing. The 1930’s saw a massive leap into corporate sponsorship with the â€Å"tie-up†, an early form of product placementRead MoreHollywood History5698 Words   |  23 PagesHollywood during the War Years 10. Stars Conclusion Bibliography Foreword I have always been fascinated by the Hollywood’s world, a world of mixture between reality and glittering fantasy, of beauty, glamour, art, a world in which any dream can come to reality. The word Hollywood conjures the outstanding images of Sunset Strip, Hollywood Boulevard, Cahuenga Boulevard, La Brea Avenue, of nightclubs, movie palaces, special effects, extraordinary people – stars of the gaudiest illumination, HollywoodRead MoreWhat s So Great About Leonardo Dicaprio?900 Words   |  4 Pagesthe critically acclaimed film Titanic. Dicaprio is arguably one of the biggest male stars in the world he has the ladies; surely we re now going to see a romantic comedy, right? No DiCaprio had bigger fish to fry. He doesn t even show up to the Oscars for Titanic in 1998. He tackled a dual role in the film The Man in the Iron Mask, which went on to make $180 million worldwide. Dicaprio took a break then returned to star in Steven Spielberg’s film, Catch Me If You Can, which received a GoldenRead MoreHow Much Does Weight Affect a Television Show? Essay1156 Words   |  5 Pages The majority of the actors and actresses that star in the television shows are those who are skinny and attractive. However, the United States as a whole is considered obese. One particular program, Mike and Molly, took a different approach in the appearance of the stars. Mike and Molly stars Melissa McCarthy and Billy Gardell, who are two plus sized actors. The show is about their dating lives and different life lessons that they learn throughout it with a more comical view rather than serious

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Operating in Australia the Great Barrier Reef †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Operating in Australia the Great Barrier Reef. Answer: Running for a stretch of a staggering 2300 kilometers, ornamenting the north eastern coastal region of Australia the Great Barrier Reef, is a natural wonder that fascinates anyone who is a travel enthusiast. It is situated in the state of Queensland near the Equator. True to the name this marine ecosystem is comprised of almost 2900 individual reefs along with approximately 900 individual islands. It serves as a habitat for innumerable flora and fauna which attract thousands of tourists to the reef on a daily basis. The reef has been deemed as World Heritage Site by UNESCO in the year 1981 (Great Barrier Reef 2017). It has been found that over the years due to the rise in tourism there is a depletion of the ecosystem. This north east region of Australia is a tourist hub, which attract national and international tourists every year. A large part of the government income is incurred the hospitality and tourism industry. With the encouragement and increase of tourism this natural beauty has been subjected to a lot of change and degradation, hence the Australian Commonwealth Government wanted to protect and conserve the ecosystem and has in turn set up The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 1975 (gbrmpa.gov.au, 2017). The sectors of income in the reef region can be generated from Commercial fishing and aquaculture, Tourism industry, hospitality and recreation along with research and development. In the tourism department there are various types of business that has popped up which is adding to the economy of the area and is helping the local population to grow and develop. Some of the popular business in tourism is hotel business, restaurant business, boating etc. But one of the most profitable and advantageous businesses that are possible in the barrier reef owing to its geographical location and technologies now available is snorkelling (Day and Dobbs 2013). All adventure fanatic tourists who are looking for an adrenaline rush opts for snorkelling in the Great Barrier Reef region when they are visiting the island country. This is also the best and the closest option one can choose to fully imbibe the beauty of this natural ecosystem. Snorkelling allows an individual to closely see and feel the marine life. Anyone who can swim and has minimum physical fitness is eligible for swimming. There are various options to choose from, depending on the location where one is staying; there are options where a person can dive out of a boat. In this case the boat owner, the boat driver, the instructors are all involved in the business and are earning from what an individual is spending on that trip (Wilson and Verlis 2017). Most of the time people who come for the snorkeling or diving experience do not have any knowledge about the sport. Hence there are instructors who are appointed to give people diving lessons and teach them how to use the gear and signal under water, anticipation of problem under water and how to avoid them etc. there are luxury and ordinary options to choose from. The divers who assist the people in the ride are all certified and are experienced in the sport. The companies who arrange fro the diving and snorkeling have boats and cruises which take tourists on rides and mostly all of these activities come in a package (Lamb et al. 2014). This industry is fully dependent on the marine ecosystem and human resource. A tourist would always want to only go for such a nerve racking experience with someone who is certified to carry out such tasks and hence skilled trained human resource is a very important factor. There are also several safety measures that are to be taken. Another important aspect of this industry is the gears that are used during snorkeling or scuba diving. This includes a whole industry in itself and several numbers of people are involved in manufacturing and retailing these gears (Amelung and Nicholls 2014). The snorkeling and scuba diving industry in the island country of Australia is one of the most relevant and booming business industries with a lot of prospect with the growing technical development and popularity of the adventure sport among the tourists. To help tourist gather the most from their vacation to Australia the government has also come up with many laws which each of these companies have to abide by and follow strictly. With the advancement of technology this industry has also grown exponentially creating several job opportunities for the localities in and around The Great Barrier Reef. One of the most important drawbacks of this business is that most people are not up for such adventure sport hence people usually opt for a much more relaxing option to spend their stay in the reef islands. It is an adventure sport and is for the people who are looking for the thrill and rush. References: Amelung, B. and Nicholls, S., 2014. Implications of climate change for tourism in Australia.Tourism Management,41, pp.228-244. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bas_Amelung/publication/259121976_Implications_of_climate_change_for_tourism_in_Australia/links/0f31753622730786d3000000.pdf Day, J.C. and Dobbs, K., 2013. Effective governance of a large and complex cross-jurisdictional marine protected area: Australia's Great Barrier Reef.Marine Policy,41, pp.14-24. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jon_Day/publication/257163233_Effective_governance_of_a_large_and_complex_cross-jurisdictional_marine_protected_area_Australia's_Great_Barrier_Reef/links/56e0dbf408aec4b3333d18c3.pdf gbrmpa.gov.au. 2017.Tourism on the Great Barrier Reef. [online] Available at: https://www./managing-the-reef/how-the-reefs-managed/tourism-on-the-great-barrier-reef [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017]. Great Barrier Reef. 2017.Australia.Com. https://www.australia.com/en-in/places/great-barrier-reef.html Lamb, J.B., True, J.D., Piromvaragorn, S. and Willis, B.L., 2014. Scuba diving damage and intensity of tourist activities increases coral disease prevalence.Biological Conservation,178, pp.88-96. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joleah_Lamb/publication/264557713_Scuba_diving_damage_and_intensity_of_tourist_activities_increases_coral_disease_prevalence/links/540d0fce0cf2f2b29a3825d9.pdf Wilson, S.P. and Verlis, K.M., 2017. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.Marine Pollution Bulletin,117(1), pp.239-246. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Scott_Wilson8/publication/313417928_The_ugly_face_of_tourism_Marine_debris_pollution_linked_to_visitation_in_the_southern_Great_Barrier_Reef_Australia/links/58f96b044585152edecb1e7d/The-ugly-face-of-tourism-Marine-debris-pollution-linked-to-visitation-in-the-southern-Great-Barrier-Reef-Australia.pdf

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Intrusion Detection Systems Essay Example

Intrusion Detection Systems Paper Intrusion Detection Systems In 1980, James Anderson’s paper, Computer Security Threat Monitoring and Surveillance, bore the notion of intrusion detection. Through government funding and serious corporate interest allowed for intrusion detection systems(IDS) to develope into their current state. So what exactly is IDS? An IDS is used to detect malicious network traffic and computer usage through attack signatures. The IDS watches for attacks not only from incoming internet traffic but also for attacks that originate in the system. When a potential attack is detected the IDS logs the information and sends an alert to the console. How the alert is detected and handled at is dependent on the type of IDS in place. Through this paper we will discuss the different types of IDS and how they detect and handle the alerts, the difference between a passive and a reactive system and some general IDS intrusion invasion techniques. First lets go over what the difference is between a passive and a reactive IDS. In a passive IDS the sensor of detects an potential threat then logs the information and sends an alert to the console. With a reactive IDS, also known as an intrusion prevention system(IPS), the threat would be detected and logged. We will write a custom essay sample on Intrusion Detection Systems specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Intrusion Detection Systems specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Intrusion Detection Systems specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Then the reactive IDS would either reset the connection or reprogram the firewall to block network traffic from the suspected source, which could be automatic or at the control of an operator. Therefore a reactive system will act in response to the threat were as a passive system will only log and send an alert to the console informing the operator of a threat. There are many types of intrusion detection systems, network intrusion detection, host based, protocol based, application protocol based, anomaly based and hybrid. The first one we are going to discus is network intrusion detection systems or NIDS. With NIDS the system attempts to detect threats and attacks, such as denial of service attacks, port scans and attempts to hack into computers by monitoring the network traffic in real time through a promiscuous connection. It does so by first filtering out all known non-malicious traffic and then analyzing the remaining incoming packets for suspicious patterns that could be threats. It is not however limited to just analyzing incoming packets, the system also analyzes the outgoing local traffic, in case of an attack/threat that originates inside of the local network. Snort is an example of this. Host based intrusion detection systems unlike network intrusion detection systems, which focus on a computing system’s external interfaces, host based systems focus on the monitoring and examination of the computing system’s internals. Host based systems are more concerned with the changes in state of a computing system. It detects these changes by analyzing system specific logs either in real time or periodically. When there is any change in the logs the IDS will compare the current configuration of the security policy to the changes and react accordingly. An example of this would be tripwire. Protocol based intrusion detection systems (PIDS) monitor the dynamic behavior and state of the protocol. In a typical setup there is a system or agent sitting at the front end of the server. This agent or system monitors the communication protocol between the computing system, it is trying to protect, and a connected device. The main goal of protocol based IDS is to impose the proper use of the protocol used between the protected computing system and all connected devices. Bro and sort are examples of protocol based intrusion detection systems. Application protocol based intrusion detection systems (APIDS) are used to monitor the protocols specific to certain applications and protocols being used by the computing system. The typical setup, similar to protocol based IDS, consists of a system or agent that sits in front of a group of servers where it will monitor and analyze the communication protocols specific to applications. An example would be to have an APIDS between a web server and a database system where the APIDS monitors the SQL protocol being used between them. Anomaly based intrusion detection systems detect attacks and threats through the monitoring of system activity and classifying it based on heuristic or rules instead of patterns and signatures. The IDS classifies activity as either normal or anomalous based on its analysis. Since the classification is determined by heuristic or rules it has a significant advantage over systems that use signatures. In signature based detection the signature has to have been previously created where in anomaly based any type of use that doesn’t coincide with the normal use of the system will be detected malicious or not. Snort is an example of this type of system. Hybrid intrusion detection systems consist of a combination of one or more approaches to intrusion detection systems. Typically you would use a host based IDS and a network IDS to develop an extensive overview of the entire network. The biggest benefit that a hybrid IDS has over any single type of IDS is the large amount of sensors it has to detect malicious activity. Prelude is an example of an hybrid IDS. As with any other type of security device there will always be some one looking for holes in the fence. Intrusion detection systems are no different. Through many intrusion invasion techniques people are able to avoid detection by changing the states of the IDS and the targeted computing system by manipulating the attack or the network traffic that contains the attack. Some of the techniques we will cover in this paper are obfuscating attack payload fragmentation and small packets, overlapping fragments, protocol violations, inserting traffic at the IDS, denial of service. Obfuscating attack payload is simply what it means, which is to encode the attack so that the IDS will be unable to reverse the packets but the target computer can. A way to do this is through encoding attack packets with a Unicode character in which an IDS recognize but an IIS server will be able decode thus being attacked. You can also use polymorphic code in so that you can trick signature-based IDSs by creating unique attack patterns so there is not a distinct attack signature that can be easily detected. Another technique used to evade IDS is through fragmentation and small packets. With this technique you simply just split the packets up into smaller packets or create packets with a small payload also known as ‘session splicing’. Although small packets alone, will not be enough to evade an IDS with a packet reassembler. Hope is not lost though you can still modify the packets to complicate reassembly. One way to confuse the reassembler is to pause between sending parts of the attack in hope that the reassembler will time out but not the target computer. Another way is to send the packets out of order so that the reasssembler gets confused but the target computer does not. An IDS evasion technique, known as overlapping fragments, uses TCP sequence numbers to confuse the IDS. It basically creates a series of packets with TCP sequence numbers configured to overlap. So for example you send the first packet that includes 80 bytes you then send the second packet with a sequence number of 76 bytes after the start of the first packet. The target computer, when it tries to reassemble the TCP stream, has to decide how to handle the 4 bytes that overlapping. Some systems take it from the older data and some from the newer data, it is dependent on the operating system of the target computer. Protocol violations are another technique of IDS intrusion invasion. Using protocol violations you simply exploit known violations to a protocol that will be interpreted differently by the IDS than by the target computer. An example of this would be to use the TCP Urgent Pointer that is handled differently by different operating systems and the IDS may not handle it correctly. Another evasion technique is inserting traffic at the IDS. This is where you send packets that the IDS will see but the target computer will not. This is accomplished by simply crafting packets whose time to live fields have been configured to reach the IDS but not the target computer. This creates a situation where the IDS is in a different state than the target computer. Denial of service attacks or DoS attacks, are used to evade detection by overloading and disabling the IDS. To achieve this the attack will exploit a known bug in the IDS using up computational resources needed by the IDS. This can also be accomplished by intentional generating a large number of alerts to set up a front to hide the real attack. Utilities such as stick and snot are designed to send a large amount of attack signatures across a network to spawn a large number of IDS alerts. However this will only work on IDSs that do not maintain application protocol context. As you can see with the numerous ways around intrusion detection systems, as with any network security system, there is no complete security solution. Even with this there will always be a need for intrusion detection systems. The best of which would be a combination of network and host based IDSs, in other words a hybrid IDS. These will give you the benefits of both worlds of IDS and allow for greater security. Whatever your opinion on which solution is right for you, intrusion detection systems are here to stay and are a valuable tool in network security. Resources http://www. securityfocus. com/infocus/1514

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Compare And Contrast Medical And Psychological Models For Understanding And Intervening In Children’s Development.

Compare And Contrast Medical And Psychological Models For Understanding And Intervening In Children’s Development. Medical and psychological models of children's development have tended to follow two discrete paths. The medical model tends to assume a line of pathology that seeks causation and remediation. Psychological models tend to embrace a developmental approach, in which social and cultural norms play an equal, if not larger part, in pursuing the interests of the child. This essay seeks to compare the two models, using Down's Syndrome and autism as the main vehicles for analysis and discussion and to contrast how the two approaches attempt to address children's development.One fundamental difference in the medical and psychological approaches has been in the use of terminology. The medical model seeks to diagnose a patient with a disease or symptoms that requires treatment. It often uses terms that label the child in ways that seek to categorise the child, as if, ownership of a disorder were solely attributable to the individual.Boy with Down Syndrome using cordless drill to ass...This cont rasts with most recent psychological approaches that conceptualise the child, as a member of a wider social group who has certain needs, that with intervention will attempt to enable him or her to live as normal a life as possible. It is implicit in this approach that whilst the child may have a disability, the "‹ÂÅ"problem', belongs within society. (It is probably fair to say that this is, albeit to a much lesser extent today, still aspirational) It could be argued that in both models a "‹ÂÅ"problem' exists, in some cases, because there are wider cultural expectations that require individuals to behave and conform in certain ways to defined developmental milestones. Thus, there is an (unwitting) attempt to homogenise individuals within social norms.With Down's Syndrome it is now clearly understood as a congenital condition. Although there are several variations of the syndrome, by far the most common are...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Strategic Development and Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Strategic Development and Management - Essay Example According to the paper findings strategy is that function of an organisation where decisions and plans are made, which reflect the long-term objectives of the organisation, and is independent from decisions made on a daily level. Other definitions include, â€Å"the pursuit of superior performance by using a plan that ensures a better or stronger matching of corporate strengths to customer needs than is provided by competitors†. It can be argued that the above definitions may be interdependent because attaining competitive advantage may sometimes be seen as a long-term objective by organisations, depending upon the market environment they operate in. As the essay stresses the definitions also show that there are internal and external implications to strategy, where the internal factors may include the structure of the organisation, the kind of corporate governance (leadership) that exists within the organisation, and the function of Human Resources Management. The external factors may include the Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Environmental, and Legal issues associated within a given market environment where the organisation operates. There are other methods of internal and external analyses that influence strategy like the SWOT analysis and Porter’s five forces, which are all helpful for the organisation to make strategic decisions in order to attain competitive advantage. These methods will be discussed in detail in later stages of the study.... To delve further into the study it is important to establish the definition for the terms ‘strategic management’. David (2009) defines strategic management as the â€Å"art and science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organisation to achieve its objectives† (p. 36). As the definition suggests, there are different functions within an organisation like management, marketing, finance/accounting, production/operations, research and development, and computer information systems (David, 2009; Johnson et al, 2008), but not necessarily restricted to these, and the job of strategic management is to integrate all these functions towards the common goal of achieving organisational success. Stages of Strategic Management: The strategy formulation stage normally involves assessing the organisation’s resources and determining what market(s) to enter and which ones to abandon. This is also the stage where visions and m issions of the company are developed and long-term objectives are established. Top managers take up the responsibilities to assess the advantages of expansion or reduction, and/or entering international markets, resource allocation, product diversification, mergers/ takeovers etc. This is also where companies assess the opportunities and threats in particular markets and internal strengths and weaknesses in order to create contingent strategies (SWOT). Analysis is also done on what markets to invest in and what political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal (PESTEL) issues may arise in said market. Decisions made during this stage commit an organisation to specific products, resources, markets and technologies for